The hottest recycling trends of plastic food packa

2022-08-24
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Recycling trends of plastic food packaging materials abroad (I)

plastics, with its small proportion, easy processing and excellent air tightness, will become one of the basic application materials in various fields of people's livelihood in the future, just like metals, paper and glass. Especially in food packaging, it is widely used in many forms, such as film, plate or bottle. Especially in recent years, due to the composite processing method with aluminum foil and other materials, it has high air tightness and other properties, so it occupies a very important position in the development of distilled food and extending the shelf life of food

however, in recent years, due to the increasing voice of protecting the earth's environment and the increasingly serious problem of waste and garbage disposal, people have to completely change the concept of "mass production, mass consumption" and focus on making full use of the earth's limited resources to maintain and maintain a coordinated ecological environment. Vigorously recycling and utilizing waste packaging materials, especially plastic packaging materials, is an important measure to achieve this goal. Therefore, some countries even enforce this work by means of legislation. For example, in Japan, PET containers were first recycled in 1997 according to the "packaging container recycling law". Other developed countries such as Europe and the United States have also taken various measures and means to actively carry out the recycling of waste plastic packaging. Now the relevant developments are introduced as follows:

first, the basic composition of food packaging materials

in all packaging materials, plates, films or bottles made of pure plastic or other materials account for about 15%. The types of plastics used are mainly polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC)

Second, recycling technology of waste plastics

there are roughly two ways to recycle and recycle waste plastics. One is the same as the recycling method of beer bottles. After recycling, it is directly reused for canning after cleaning, such as Coke bottles, mineral water bottles, etc. The second is to take some technical treatment after recycling, so that it can be reused in a new form. For example, after classification, it is crushed, cleaned and refined, processed into plastic fibers or plates, and then used to make textiles, carpets or other containers; It can also be chemically decomposed and re polymerized by chemical methods, such as the decomposition of PET materials; It can also be used as blast furnace fuel and power generation directly or after oiling. For example, a waste plastic oiling center has been established in Japan to develop blast furnace fuel oil that can replace coke. It is said that with this method, all waste plastics can be completely disposed of with only one-third of the current number of iron making blast furnaces

III. current situation of standards, regulations and recycling of plastic products for food packaging in developed countries and regions

standards for plastic materials for food packaging are, of course, ideally formulated in accordance with unified international standards, which can ensure the same quality of packaging materials around the world. However, due to different food cultures and national customs in various countries and regions, Therefore, the relevant regulations and standards are different

1 Japan

1) relevant regulations

Japan has no special food packaging regulations so far, and the most basic regulation related to food packaging is the food hygiene law. In order to jointly abide by this basic regulation, on this basis, some industry associations plan to formulate relevant industry standards, such as the polyolefin health association composed of plastic additives, resins, plastic processing enterprises and food manufacturers for 27 kinds of plastic food packaging materials such as PE and pp. it is planned that the association will formulate industry standards and uniformly issue product certificates and pl (Product Safety Law) marks. At the same time, it is responsible for collecting relevant technical regulations and other information from all countries in the world, and organizing publicity activities for consumers and at home and abroad. Such a way of setting standards by horizontal industry associations is unique to Japan

in January, 1993, the association established a "renewable plastic hygiene Symposium" composed of relevant scholars, experts, consumers and people in food circulation on the recycling of food packaging. Based on the results of relevant investigations and visits to Europe and the United States and the dissolution test of pollutants and toxic substances collected for regeneration. 1. Check whether the connecting lines of the experimental machine are normal before the experiment. The plastic sample entered the ground. In June 1996, the symposium put forward a report on the current situation of the use of recycled plastic products in Japan, the status of technological development and the relevant trends in Europe and the United States, And put forward the following restrictive conditions for the use of recycled plastics:

① the object of recycling: only PET bottles containing canned beverages, alcohol and soy sauce, and foaming PC discs and boxes

② service conditions: it can only be used on the non-contact surface with food. For example, it is used as the middle interlayer of air tight packaging materials

③ confirmation test: the variability test must be negative; The general hygienic method test should be below the limited index, and the dissolution of harmful substances in water, vinegar and wine after heat degradation and pollution should be tested

2) current situation of recycling

in 1993, Japan's Ministry of trade and industry formulated a plan for the disposal of waste plastics for the 21st century. According to the basic goals set in the plan, the disposal of waste must reduce the use of simple incineration and burial, and increase the use of fuel for power generation to recover heat energy or recycling, so that the effective utilization rate of waste plastics will reach 80% at the beginning of the 21st century, close to the level of European and American countries

however, the implementation is not very satisfactory. With regard to the output of plastic products in Japan and the recycling and treatment of discarded plastic products, the author has a copy of 1996 data at hand for reference. In 1996, the consumption of plastic products in Japan was 10.81 million tons (of which about 2million tons were used as packaging materials), and the resulting waste was 9.09 million tons. Among the waste, 15% is used for food packaging, 34% is used for volume, and 39% is recycled waste plastic, of which 11% is recycled, 27% is used for garbage combustion for power generation, and 1% is converted to solid fuel. Although the recycling rate has increased significantly compared with 25% in 1995, 61% of waste plastics are still treated by simple incineration or burial

as mentioned, Japan has implemented a maximum of 2.38 recycling of pet in accordance with the recycling law since April 1997, and local governments have also spent a huge amount of recycling costs. However, in the end, only about 15% of the 3300 cities and towns in the country have been implemented, and the recycling volume is still less than 10% of the production volume. It can be seen that the unilateral good wishes of the administrators are far from the awareness level of the public. In addition, the special regulations are not perfect, and the industry association plans to formulate standards is only in the program stage, and if the proposed standards conflict with the current provisions of the relevant administrative departments, it is difficult to implement them

therefore, in order to promote the recycling of waste and make it an effective use of limited resources, Japan publicizes it to all citizens, so that enterprises can get the full understanding and support of every citizen and actively carry out the recycling of waste, including waste plastics

2 overview of European Community (EC)

in addition to Germany and the United Kingdom, most other European Community countries take European standards (EU), that is, European Community directives (EU), as the basis for formulating their own regulations on waste disposal, in order to gradually achieve the unification of standards in 15 European countries. According to the requirements of EC Directive on packaging materials and packaging waste in December 1994, the recycling of waste should achieve the following goals:

1) form a consensus that waste must be minimized and avoided when operating at the 100Hz output data rate most commonly used by experimental machines

2) take various ways to vigorously promote the recycling of waste

3) the minimum recovery rate of packaging waste is%, and the minimum recycling rate is%

4) within 10 years, the recovery rate is 90%, and the recycling rate is 60%

when voting on this directive, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark abstained because their recovery rates were too low. In fact, due to the influence of their respective economic strength, the severity of the waste problem, and even the political security situation, there are also great differences in waste disposal policies among the 15 countries. Therefore, according to the Amsterdam Treaty signed in 1998, if the European Community countries have formulated their own environmental protection regulations and standard indicators before the issuance of the above-mentioned EC Directive, the above-mentioned EC directive may not prevail for the time being, and the special policies and regulations of the participating countries shall be respected

in addition, APME (Association of plastics maunfacturers of Europe), which is composed of more than 30 European plastic manufacturers represented by BASF, ICI, etc., put forward its own views on the recycling of food plastic packaging to the EC Commission from the standpoint of the manufacturing industry in 1996 after investigating the safety performance of products, It is believed that the recycling of food packaging must pay special attention to ensuring safety. Because the current relevant laws and regulations have many restrictions and prohibitions on the safety of food packaging, but at present, it is not possible to accurately grasp the real situation of plastic from waste to recycling and reuse, that is, whether it is safe or not, so the recycling of waste food packaging plastics should not be blindly implemented, and it can only be decided by enterprises independently. APME also pointed out that the EC Committee has not yet considered and adopted the directive, indicating that its provisions are not complete, so it should take a cautious attitude now

as far as Europe as a whole is concerned, the attitudes taken towards the recycling of packaging materials are roughly divided into three types, namely, the activists, such as Germany, the Nordic countries and Switzerland, which are the most active; Centrists, such as France, the Netherlands and Belgium; Negatives, such as Britain, Italy, Spain and Greece. The following details the situation of several major European countries

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